The roof is a structural element that finishes off the building. Its main function is protecting the home against atmospheric factors such as rain, wind and sun, as well insulating against noise. The type of roof applied depends not only on the aesthetic values of the building, but also on the architectural and urban planning assumptions binding the area of the investment planned. Many requirements regarding roof layout and material used for building the roofing depend on the provisions included in the local spatial development plan (if the land plot is located within the range of such a plan).
The main types of roofs include flat roofs and sloping roofs. The application of specific solutions depends not only on the general look and structure of the home, but also on how the space in the home’s attic is used. Traditional sloping roofs rely on wooden roof framing. It is possible to choose between ready-made structures in the form of trusses or the preparation of framing directly at the construction site. The most important matter is to provide appropriate material; the wood should be strong (of an appropriate grading), healthy (without signs of presence of fungi or mould), free of defects (e.g. high density of knots or mold) and with an appropriate humidity level (15-18%). The proper storage, processing and impregnation of this raw material also has a tremendous impact on its quality.
The element of much greater functional and aesthetic significance is the roofing. The materials of which it is made differ in terms of durability and functionality. The traditional material that has been used for centuries is ceramic roof tiles. The roofings made of this material are very durable, resistant to changing atmospheric conditions, and they ensure good thermal and acoustic insulation. Ceramic tiles are available in multiple colours and shapes and are characterised by exceptional aesthetic values. Their disadvantage is the high price and significant weight. The decision to cover the roof with tiles has to already be taken into account at the stage of designing in order to reinforce the roof framing structure. Alternatively, it is possible to use tiles made of cement. Their parameters are similar to those of ceramic tiles, but they are available in a more narrow selection of shapes. They are also less durable.
What has become very popular in recent years is the roofing made of sheet metal – in the form of metal roofing tiles or sheet metal seam roofing. The Roofing materials to select from are very wide – one can choose both the colour and sheet metal ribbing type. The technical parameters depend on the external coating applied in order to secure the sheet metal. The market offers solutions that are encompassed with up to a 30-year manufacturer’s warranty. One of the greatest advantages of sheet metal tiles is their low price. This roofing material are far less expensive than those made of ceramic and cement tiles. However, they have worse parameters when it comes to heat and acoustic insulation.